Skip to main content

Advertisement

High-Speed Smart Camera with High Resolution

Article metrics

  • 1410 Accesses

  • 12 Citations

Abstract

High-speed video cameras are powerful tools for investigating for instance the biomechanics analysis or the movements of mechanical parts in manufacturing processes. In the past years, the use of CMOS sensors instead of CCDs has enabled the development of high-speed video cameras offering digital outputs, readout flexibility, and lower manufacturing costs. In this paper, we propose a high-speed smart camera based on a CMOS sensor with embedded processing. Two types of algorithms have been implemented. A compression algorithm, specific to high-speed imaging constraints, has been implemented. This implementation allows to reduce the large data flow (6.55 Gbps) and to propose a transfer on a serial output link (USB 2.0). The second type of algorithm is dedicated to feature extraction such as edge detection, markers extraction, or image analysis, wavelet analysis, and object tracking. These image processing algorithms have been implemented into an FPGA embedded inside the camera. These implementations are low-cost in terms of hardware resources. This FPGA technology allows us to process in real time 500 images per second with a 1280×1024 resolution. This camera system is a reconfigurable platform, other image processing algorithms can be implemented.

[1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48]

References

  1. 1.

    Thorpe S, Fize D, Marlot C: Speed of processing in the human visual system. Nature 1996,381(6582):520-522. 10.1038/381520a0

  2. 2.

    Kondo Y, Maruno H, Tominaga H, Soya H, Etoh TG: An ultrahigh-speed video camera and its applications. 25th International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, September-October 2002, Beaune, France, Proceedings of SPIE 4948: 53-58.

  3. 3.

    Tajima K, Tamura K, Awano K: Design of 1-M pixels high-speed video camera. 25th International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, September-October 2002, Beaune, France, Proceedings of SPIE 4948: 83-88.

  4. 4.

    Wolf W, Ozer B, Lv T: Smart cameras as embedded systems. Computer 2002,35(9):48-53. 10.1109/MC.2002.1033027

  5. 5.

    Fauvet E, Paindavoine M, Cannard F: Human movement analysis with image processing in real time. 19th International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, September 1991, Cambridge, UK, Proceedings of SPIE 1358: 620-630.

  6. 6.

    Bouffault F, Febvre J, Milan C, Paindavoine M, Grapin JC: A high-speed video microsystem. Measurement Science and Technology 1997,8(4):398-402. 10.1088/0957-0233/8/4/006

  7. 7.

    Bouffault F, Milan C, Paindavoine M, Febvre J: High-speed cameras using a CCD image sensor and a new high-speed image sensor for biological applications. 21st International Congress on: High-Speed Photography and Photonics, August-September 1994, Taejon, Korea, Proceedings of SPIE 2513: 252-258.

  8. 8.

    Paindavoine M, Dolard D, Grapin J-C: Real-time imaging system applied to human movement analysis. Advanced Signal Processing Algorithms, Architectures, and Implementations IX, July 1999, Denver, Colo, USA, Proceedings of SPIE 3807: 150-156.

  9. 9.

    Xilinx http://www.xilinx.com

  10. 10.

    Nac : Memrecam fx K4 High-Speed Color Video System. http://www.nacinc.com

  11. 11.

    Photron : Ultima APX-RS Fastcam. http://www.photron.com

  12. 12.

    Weinberger http://www.weinbergervision.com

  13. 13.

    Micron http://www.micron.com

  14. 14.

    Fossum ER: Active pixel sensors: are CCDs dinosaurs? Charge-Coupled Devices and Solid State Optical Sensors III, February 1993, San Jose, Calif, USA, Proceedings of SPIE 1900: 2-14.

  15. 15.

    Litwiller D: CCD vs. CMOS: facts and fiction. Photonics Spectra 2001,35(1):154-158.

  16. 16.

    USB2.0 http://www.usb.org

  17. 17.

    Huffman DA: A method for construction of minimum-redundancy codes. Proceedings of IRE 1952,40(9):1098-1101. 10.1109/JRPROC.1952.273898

  18. 18.

    Ziv J, Lempel A: A universal algorithm for sequential data compression. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1977,23(3):337-343. 10.1109/TIT.1977.1055714

  19. 19.

    Pennebaker WB, Mitchell JL: JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard. Kluwer Academic, Norwell, Mass, USA; 1992.

  20. 20.

    JPEG Commitee http://www.jpeg.org

  21. 21.

    Taubman DS, Marcellin MW: JPEG 2000: Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice. Kluwer Academic, Norwell, Mass, USA; 2001.

  22. 22.

    Mallat SG: A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: the wavelet representation. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 1989,11(7):674-693. 10.1109/34.192463

  23. 23.

    Taubman D: High performance scalable image compression with EBCOT. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 2000,9(7):1158-1170. 10.1109/83.847830

  24. 24.

    Pereira FC, Ebrahimi T: The MPEG-4 Book. Prentice-Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA; 2002.

  25. 25.

    MPEG Commitee http://www.mpeg.org

  26. 26.

    Santa-Cruz D, Ebrahimi T, Askelof J, Larsson M, Christopoulos CA: JPEG 2000 still image coding versus other standards. Applications of Digital Image Processing XXIII, July 2000, San Diego, Calif, USA, Proceedings of SPIE 4115: 446-454.

  27. 27.

    http://www.cast-inc.com/cores/jpeg-e/

  28. 28.

    Schumacher P, Paluszkiewicz M, Ballantyne R, Turney R: An efficient JPEG2000 encoder implemented on a platform FPGA. Applications of Digital Image Processing XXVI, August 2003, San Diego, Calif, USA, Proceedings of SPIE 5203: 306-313.

  29. 29.

    Schumacher P, Chung W: FPGA-based MPEG-4 codec. DSP Magazine 2005, 8-9.

  30. 30.

    Dubois J, Mattavelli M, Pierrefeu L, Miteran J: Configurable motion-estimation hardware accelerator module for the MPEG-4 reference hardware description platform. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '05), September 2005, Genova, Italy 3: 1040-1043.

  31. 31.

    Alam M, Badawy W, Jullien G: A new time distributed DCT architecture for MPEG-4 hardware reference model. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2005,15(5):726-730. 10.1109/TCSVT.2005.846429

  32. 32.

    Chiang T, Mattavelli M, Turney RD: Introduction to the special issue on integrated multimedia platforms. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2005,15(5):589-592. 10.1109/TCSVT.2005.846889

  33. 33.

    Staller A, Dillinger P, Männer R: Implementation of the JPEG 2000 standard on a virtex 1000 FPGA. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL '02), September 2002, Montpellier, France 503-512.

  34. 34.

    Grossmann A, Morlet J: Decomposition of hardy functions into square integrable wavelets of constant shape. SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis 1984,15(4):723-736. 10.1137/0515056

  35. 35.

    Sweldens W: Lifting scheme: a new philosophy in biorthogonal wavelet constructions. Wavelet Applications in Signal and Image Processing III, July 1995, San Diego, Calif, USA, Proceedings of SPIE 2569: 68-79.

  36. 36.

    Cohen A, Daubechies I, Feauveau J-C: Biorthogonal bases of compactly supported wavelets. Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics 1992,45(5):485-560. 10.1002/cpa.3160450502

  37. 37.

    Diou C, Torres L, Robert M: Implementation of a wavelet transform architecture for image processing. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI '99), December 1999, Lisbon, Portugal 101-112.

  38. 38.

    Trier OD, Jain AK: Goal-directed evaluation of binarization methods. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 1995,17(12):1191-1201. 10.1109/34.476511

  39. 39.

    Dubois J, Mattavelli M: Embedded co-processor architecture for CMOS based image acquisition. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '03), September 2003, Barcelona, Spain 2: 591-594.

  40. 40.

    Ribotta MG, Provencher J, Feraboli-Lohnherr D, Rossignol S, Privat A, Orsal D: Activation of locomotion in adult chronic spinal rats is achieved by transplantation of embryonic raphe cells reinnervating a precise lumbar level. Journal of Neuroscience 2000,20(13):5144-5152.

  41. 41.

    Rivero D, Paindavoine M, Petit S: Real-time sub-pixel cross bar position metrology. Real-Time Imaging 2002,8(2):105-113. 10.1006/rtim.2001.0259

  42. 42.

    Bourennane E, Gouton P, Paindavoine M, Truchetet F: Generalization of Canny-Deriche filter for detection of noisy exponential edge. Signal Processing 2002,82(10):1317-1328. 10.1016/S0165-1684(02)00283-9

  43. 43.

    Pirson A, Jacquot J-L, Court T, David D: A highly efficient method for synthesizing some digital filters. Proceedings of European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO '88), September 1988, Grenoble, France

  44. 44.

    Berry F, Chalimbaud P: Smart camera and active vision: the active detector formalism. Electronic Imaging 2004,14(1):2-9.

  45. 45.

    Muehlmann U, Ribo M, Lang P, Pinz A: A new high speed CMOS camera for real-time tracking applications. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA '04), April-May 2004, New Orleans, La, USA 5: 5195-5200.

  46. 46.

    Lepistö N, Thörnberg B, O'Nils M: High-performance FPGA based camera architecture for range imaging. Proceedings of the 23rd NORCHIP Conference, November 2005, Oulu, Finland 165-168.

  47. 47.

    Caarls W, Jonker P, Corporaal H: Smartcam: devices for embedded intelligent cameras. Proceedings of the 3rd PROGRESS Workshop on Embedded Systems, October 2002, Utrecht, The Netherlands 1-4.

  48. 48.

    Yang F, Paindavoine M: Implementation of an RBF neural network on embedded systems: real-time face tracking and identity verification. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 2003,14(5):1162-1175. 10.1109/TNN.2003.816035

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to R Mosqueron.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Keywords

  • Feature Extraction
  • Object Tracking
  • Compression Algorithm
  • Hardware Resource
  • Image Processing Algorithm