- Open Access
Embedded protocols based on the crowd Petri networks and opportunistic bandwidth allocation
© The Author(s). 2017
- Received: 23 August 2016
- Accepted: 27 December 2016
- Published: 14 January 2017
In order to improve the bandwidth utilization of embedded system and the working efficiency of mobile system, we propose a crowd Petri network and bandwidth allocation scheme. These research results are suitable for mobile embedded system. On the one hand, we have established a mobile crowd network system based on crowd Petri net. The system can give full play to the advantages of the concurrent and distributed data, so as to provide the formal description of the data control behavior of the mobile system and the asynchronous concurrent protection of the mobile service. On the other hand, through the opportunistic bandwidth allocation, the system efficiency and the network resources of the crowd Petri network is the most appropriate configuration. In the process of optimizing the crowd data, an embedded control protocol is studied based on the combination of the user demand and the data element characteristics by the combination of the service quality and the resource consumption. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of the embedded protocol based on bandwidth allocation of crowd Petri network.
- Embedded system
- Crowd Petri networks
- Opportunistic control
- Bandwidth allocation
In the mobile network, how to balance the  and service satisfaction  performance for providing an inevitable trend  for embedded users and high efficiency reliable service  has become an inevitable trend. However, the dynamic topology, embedded redundancy, and embedded user dynamic demand of mobile embedded network  makes the limited network resources cannot satisfy the requirements of embedded users.
The Joint Optimization Methods was proposed in , which is able to solve the non-convex problems and provides a general solution to the resource allocation for relay enhanced multi-carrier systems. Aristomenopoulos G et al.  studied the efficient-distributed resource allocation and users to cells assignment over a heterogeneous integrated wireless environment. The particular game equation and its corresponding notion of equilibrium were studied by Perlaza S M et al. . The paper  proposed a model of the connectivity of a wireless sensor network deployed over a square area, which considers border effects. Du Z et al.  proposed an online network selection algorithm to learn the optimal network selection policy with network handoff cost consideration.
The first time the concept of transition covers in Petri net models was proposed for obtaining a live Petri net controller of small size . The authors of article  proposed a new methodology to design and analyze an urban traffic network control system by using the STPN (synchronized timed Petri nets), which also modularized the applications of the STPN to eight-phase, six-phase, and two-phase traffic-light control systems. A Petri net-based method was presented to address the temporal constraint satisfiability in a holistic manner and also in a modular way in article . The automatic Web service composition method was presented by the authors of article  that deals with both input/output compatibility and behavioral constraint compatibility of fuzzy semantic services. The admissible heuristic function was designed in article  which considered the available time of shared machine resources and subparts during calculating the lower bound of the remaining time for unprocessed operations. The authors of article  presented a method for hierarchical configurable Petri nets description in VHDL language.
Based on the above research results such as Joint Optimization , efficient distributed resource allocation , online network selection algorithm , and Transition cover-based design of Petri net controllers , combined with our previous research results , we proposed the embedded protocols based on the crowd Petri networks with the opportunistic bandwidth allocation.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the Crowd Petri Networks System. Section 3 gives the embedded protocols based on opportunistic bandwidth allocation. The experimental results are shown in Section 4. Finally, Section 5 concludes this paper.
Based on the characteristics of mobile communication network system, transmission control, and embedded service, we have established a mobile crowd network system based on Petri network. This system has the characteristics of service concurrency and distributed data. These features can provide the formal description of the data control behavior and the asynchronous concurrent protection for the mobile system.
Crowd Petri net is a combination of the virtual advantages of the original Petri net and the mobile crowd service. Crowd Petri network can play the advantages of Petri network graphics simulation of complex systems based on the mobile crowd requirements. Crowd Petri net system model consists of three types of elements. The first type element represents the moving state of the embedded node. The second element indicates the random variation of crowd service. The third type of element represents the transmission control state of the mobile communication.
Three state elements of crowd Petri network is denoted as EM_ element, CR_ element, and MC_ element. The EM_ elements, CR_ elements, and MC_ elements would be analyzed and updated with the equal probability in crowd Petri network. EM_ element is driven by CR_ elements. CR_ element is described by MC_ element. CR_ elements are obtained by the integration of EM_ and MC_ elements.
Crowd Petri network is a crowd reconstruction of mobile communication embedded data elements. This reconstruction effectively simplifies the data type and data competition of Petri net. The formal definition of crowd Petri net is as follows:
Mobile crowd data element collection cannot be empty.
The location set of EM is the mobile location information of the mobile node in the embedded state.
Descriptions of EM
Crowd data buffer size of embedded node
The next sending data objects
The maximum crowd data size
Descriptions of CR and MC
Crowd service random users
Data element node for transmission control of mobile communication
Random user data sequence of crowd service
Mobile communication feedback data sequence
crowd data queue length
Reconstruction data buffer
Degree of fusion of crowd Petri networks
Introducing the opportunistic bandwidth allocation in the crowd Petri network system is helpful to the decision of the mobile users and the control of the resources. By opportunistic bandwidth allocation, the system efficiency and network resources of the crowd Petri network are the most appropriate configuration. In the process of optimizing the crowd data, a kind of embedded control protocol is studied based on the combination of the user requirements and the data element characteristics, by the combination of the service quality and the resource consumption.
OA (PC) is monotonic linear.
OA (PC) is monotonically increasing or decreasing.
There is a linear mapping between BR (PC) and OA.
Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed embedded protocol denoted as EP-CPOBA. Experiment compared the performance of the proposed EP-CPOBA with a single embedded algorithm denoted as EP-ALONE. The performance evaluation would demonstrate improvement of the average satisfaction of users and the system revenue with the proposed EP-CPOBA. Mobile network topology range is 1200 m × 1000 m. The bandwidth capacity is 1 Mbps. The concurrent user number value is from 1 to 5. Each embedded user moderate bandwidth resource demand RAB would be selected randomly in 10–50%. Simulation time is 2300 s.
Comparison of bandwidth allocation
Performance of EP-CPOBA
Performance of EP-ALONE
Resource utilization ratio (%)
Moderate resource satisfaction (%)
We proposed a crowd Petri net and bandwidth opportunistic allocation scheme, which are suitable for mobile embedded systems. The system can improve the bandwidth utilization rate of embedded system and the working efficiency of the mobile system. First of all, the crowd Petri net was designed. Then the mobile crowd network system is proposed. We studied the formal description of the behavior of the data control and the asynchronous concurrency of the mobile service, which make the system have the advantage of service concurrency and distributed data. Second, the opportunistic bandwidth resource allocation scheme was established. This scheme can further improve the system efficiency and network resource allocation of Petri net. Finally, an embedded control protocol is proposed based on the user requirements and data element characteristics. Simulation experiments compared the bandwidth of the embedded protocol and a single embedded protocol based on the bandwidth allocation of Petri net. The results show that the proposed embedded protocol always has the highest utilization of user resources, embedded user satisfaction, and system efficiency.
The structuration and coding part was carried out by SG, and the testing and debugging part was done by both the authors. This manuscript had been prepared and checked by both of the authors together. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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