- Research
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# Distributed crowd filtering mechanism based on heterogeneous network delay and data packet loss constraint

- Xiang-jun Zhou
^{1}Email author

**2016**:17

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13639-016-0052-8

© The Author(s). 2016

**Received:**29 June 2016**Accepted:**4 September 2016**Published:**27 September 2016

## Abstract

The differences among heterogeneous networks, network delay, and data packet error could decline network performance. In order to solve the above problems, we study a kind of distributed crowd-filtering mechanism. This mechanism can effectively control the heterogeneous network diversity delay by updating the coordination signal matrix, the aggregation signal matrix, and the control signal matrix. The mechanism can effectively improve network reliability based on the packet loss constraint. Considering the influence of heterogeneous network latency on the reliability of data mining results, we studied the crowd-filtering scheme for eliminating the effect of packet loss on the efficiency of data filtering. Experimental results show that, compared with the ant colony algorithm, the distributed crowd filter can accurately predict the data position, reduce the filtering error, and improve the classification accuracy and the data characteristics.

## Keywords

- Crowd filter
- Heterogeneous network
- Diversity delay
- Packet loss constraint

## 1 Introduction

Heterogeneous wireless networks, which have the advantages of mobility, easy deployment, distribution [1], and real-time, are widely used in the fields of environmental monitoring, traffic control, and medical care. Due to the differences of heterogeneous terminals [2], limited wireless bandwidth and energy supply [3], and other issues, a heterogeneous network [4] is difficult to effectively solve the data packet loss and diversity network delay [5].

A personalized fine-grained filtering scheme with privacy preservation was proposed by Zhang [6] in mobile social networks. The authors also developed a social-assisted filter distribution scheme where the filter creators send filters to their social friends.

The novel distributed consensus filter was proposed in order to solve the target tracking in the article by Zhu et al. [7]. The novel hybrid particle/finite impulse response filtering algorithm was proposed by Pak et al. [8] for improving reliability of particle filter-based localization schemes under harsh conditions causing sample impoverishment.

The information weighted consensus-based distributed particle filter was presented by Tang et al. [9] to solve the problem of information fusion estimation for large-scale sparse wireless sensor networks.

The improved particle filter was proposed by Yoo et al. [10] by incorporating semi-supervised machine learning for location estimation in mobile sensor networks.

The novel recurrent neural network-based vector control method was proposed by Fu and Li [11] for a single-phase inverter with an LCL filter, which is trained based on adaptive dynamic programming principle.

A new tractable Bernoulli filter was proposed by Abdulkadir et al. based on the random matrix framework to track an extended target in an ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor network [12].

However, how to carry on the network time delay management and the reliability guarantee under limited resources in the heterogeneous network has become the hot issue of domestic and international research at present. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the Heterogeneous network delay and data packet loss constraint scheme. The distributed crowd filtering mechanism was discussed in section 3. In Section 4, we proposed the analysis results of crowd Filter algorithm. Finally, the conclusions is given in Section 5.

## 2 Heterogeneous network delay and data packet loss constraint scheme

In Eq. 1, we use the coordinate signal matrix X (T) CO, the convergence signal matrix CG (T) x, and the control signal matrix CT (T) x computing network using the signal sequence x (t). We can obtain the system network delay according to the weight coefficient a1, a2, a3 and a4. Here, *τ*
_{
TD
} is transmission delay. *τ*
_{
CD
} is delay said protector. *τ*
_{
DLD
} is downlink delay. *τ*
_{
ULD
} is uplink delay. In order to maintain the consistency of network delay and the nature of signal attenuation, the sum of a1, a2, a3, and a4 must be 1. *α* is the lower weight of the working cycle of the network delay. *β* is the upper bound weight for the work cycle of network delay.

*C*

_{ L }(

*τ*) is as shown in Eq. 3.

Here, *φ*(*τ*) denotes the network latency control overhead. N is the number of signal samples. *g*(*t*
_{
i
}) denotes the closed loop feedback weight.

Heterogeneous networks take the controller as the core. The real-time processing of data packet dropout is met by the connection and closing of the constraint logic switch. If the data packet loss, the control logic would send *φ*(*τ*) and \( \sum_{i=1}^Ng\left({t}_i\right) \) to delay module. The delay module sends the control signal to the control module. The constraint logic module switches on the updated control logic. Based on data stream *C*
_{
L
}(*τ*), the controller can get the bit error rate and packet loss rate. If data packet is lost in transmission process, the controller cannot obtain directly the measured values. Only through the constraint module, the reliability maybe guaranteed. The matrix *C*
_{
L
}(*τ*) of formula (3) would be the \( {\overline{C}}_L\left(\tau \right) \) of formula (4) after the packet loss constraint.

*C*

_{ L }(

*τ*) of Eq. 4 after the packet loss constraint.

Here, C_{ST} is the data packet loss constraint weight.

In the heterogeneous network transmission process, through the collaboration coordinator and controller, the combination of network delay and data packet dropout, delayed constrained data flow, and transport and network distributed rate provide accurate and reliable network architecture.

## 3 Distributed crowd-filtering mechanism

- (1)
Capture network latency

If the network time delay is greater than the upper limit value, the network time delay is based on the data characteristics. Filtering data stream based on network characteristics and time delay. The most serious work cycle of data packet dropout is taken as a constraint feature subset.

- (2)
Construct a crowd compound set

The network delay characteristic set and the restraint special collection would be processed with the crowd method.

- (3)
The excitation of crowd efficiency

Based on the data size and filtering requirements, different incentive schemes are set up to speed up the convergence rate of the swarm intelligence. The dynamic adaptive scheme can be used in the crowd processing mechanism, which not only expands the existing incentive strategy but also can provide better protection for the crowd.

- (4)
Processing and filtering the features of datasets

Data set feature processing scheme includes feature collection, feature conversion and reservation. The filter feature of data set would be pre-fetched. The classification characteristics of data set could be obtained based on the classification accuracy of data set. According to the characteristics of the data set, the crowd filter would select the appropriate crowd incentive strategy. Based on the complexity characteristics of the data set classification, the transformation of the subset of the data set would be completed.

- (5)
Refine the coarse grain

Based on the coarse particle size feature subset, the global traversal is carried out from the highest complexity subset of data. Characteristic treatment of coarse grain size in the reverse order of incentive restriction. The data features of each data subset have smaller feature subset, higher classification accuracy, and better clustering.

- (6)
Refine the fine grain

According to the filtering principle and precision, the fine granularity classification is performed on several approximate coarse grain feature subsets. The difference between the maximum fine grained data subset generates a fine grain refining combination. The results from the combination of XOR and single feature subset of data, as the final result of refining.

_{cd}(m, n) can be obtained from Eq. 5 from the m dataset to the n dataset.

_{L}represents the complexity of the data subset.

*D*

_{ F }= {

*y*:

*m*≤

*y*≤

*n*}. The filter object of the collection is shown in Eq. 7.

- (1)Select the closed interval [mi, ni] in each data subset. According to Eq. 8, the dataset of filtered hierarchical FPi is obtained.$$ F{P}_i=\left\{{x}_i:D{F}_i+{\tau}_{m\to n}\left({x}_i-{x}_{i-1}\right){\left\Vert A\right\Vert}^2\right\} $$(8)
Here, the closed interval should be filtered based on the network delay, delay capture and the complexity of the distribution complex degree.

- (2)Based on Eqs. 5 and 6, combined with the filtering requirement, the characteristic measure and reservation for each data packet are carried out. This will help improve the accuracy of the filter.$$ \left\{\begin{array}{l}M{E}_F={\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^m{A}_{i,i}\left( \cos \beta {x}_i-D{F}_i\right)}\\ {}{F}_R=\lambda \left( \sin \alpha -{\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^nD{F}_i{x}_i}\right)\end{array}\right. $$(9)
Here, ME

_{F}represents the characteristic measure matrix. The matrix is obtained by the characteristic matrix, the crowd transfer starting point dataset, and the filter input set. F_{R}representation feature reservation matrix. The matrix is obtained by solving the target dataset and the feature set of distributed crowd data.*λ*represents the feature set aside weight. - (3)The updated rules of the filtering matrix of the distributed crowd excitation (Eq. 10) are shown in real time.$$ \left\{\begin{array}{l}x(t)= \cos \alpha DF(x)+ \sin \beta A(x)\\ {}u(t)=\sqrt{\left| \cos \alpha - \sin \beta \right|}{\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^n\frac{F{P}_i}{\lambda }}\end{array}\right. $$(10)
- (4)The conditions for the stability of the distributed crowd filtering are shown in Eq. 11. In order to meet the conditions, you can call the optimal polling strategy shown in Fig. 3.$$ \cos \beta DF(x)\left( \sin \alpha -{\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^nD{F}_i{x}_i}\right)\le \frac{\lambda {\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^nF{P}_i}}{\sqrt{\left| \cos \alpha - \sin \beta \right|}} $$(11)

## 4 Analysis of crowd-filter algorithm

Data features and diversity

Dataset | Number of features | Sample | Training sample | Test sample |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 15 | 325 | 213 | 123 |

2 | 14 | 287 | 145 | 98 |

3 | 12 | 234 | 89 | 45 |

We wanted the proposed Distributed Crowd Filtering mechanism based on Heterogeneous network delay and data packet loss Constraint (DCFHC) and constraints of the ant algorithm (ant filter algorithm based on constraint based on Ant Filter algorithm based on Constraint (AFC)) in data location, error filtering, classification accuracy, and the data of mean performance.

## 5 Conclusions

We study a distributed crowd-filtering mechanism to eliminate the heterogeneity of heterogeneous networks, network delay, and data packet loss on network performance. First, in the heterogeneous network, we set up the coordinate signal matrix, the aggregation signal matrix, and the control signal matrix. We updated the above matrix to effectively control the diversity of heterogeneous network delay. Second, based on the packet loss constraint, the transmission reliability of network packets is improved effectively. Then, considering the influence of heterogeneous network delay on the reliability of data mining results, the effect of packet loss on the efficiency of data filtering is studied. Finally, in the aspect of the data location, the classification accuracy of filtering error, and the improvement of data characteristics, the distributed crowd-filtering algorithm has better performance.

## Declarations

### Competing interests

The author declares that he has no competing interests.

**Open Access**This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

## Authors’ Affiliations

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