Open Access

Adaptive Motion Estimation Processor for Autonomous Video Devices

EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems20072007:057234

https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/57234

Received: 1 June 2006

Accepted: 6 March 2007

Published: 22 May 2007

Abstract

Motion estimation is the most demanding operation of a video encoder, corresponding to at least 80% of the overall computational cost. As a consequence, with the proliferation of autonomous and portable handheld devices that support digital video coding, data-adaptive motion estimation algorithms have been required to dynamically configure the search pattern not only to avoid unnecessary computations and memory accesses but also to save energy. This paper proposes an application-specific instruction set processor (ASIP) to implement data-adaptive motion estimation algorithms that is characterized by a specialized datapath and a minimum and optimized instruction set. Due to its low-power nature, this architecture is highly suitable to develop motion estimators for portable, mobile, and battery-supplied devices. Based on the proposed architecture and the considered adaptive algorithms, several motion estimators were synthesized both for a Virtex-II Pro XC2VP30 FPGA from Xilinx, integrated within an ML310 development platform, and using a StdCell library based on a 0.18 μ m CMOS process. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is able to estimate motion vectors in real time for QCIF and CIF video sequences with a very low-power consumption. Moreover, it is also able to adapt the operation to the available energy level in runtime. By adjusting the search pattern and setting up a more convenient operating frequency, it can change the power consumption in the interval between 1.6 mW and 15 mW.

[1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19]

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
INESC-ID/IST/ISEL

References

  1. Pereira FCN, Ebrahimi T: The MPEG4 Book. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA; 2002.Google Scholar
  2. Bhaskaran V, Konstantinides K: Image and Video Compression Standards: Algorithms and Architectures. 2nd edition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Mass, USA; 1997.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Pirsch P, Demassieux N, Gehrke W: VLSI architectures for video compression—a survey. Proceedings of the IEEE 1995,83(2):220-246. 10.1109/5.364465View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Dias T, Roma N, Sousa L: Efficient motion vector refinement architecture for sub-pixel motion estimation systems. Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems Design and Implementation (SIPS '05), November 2005, Athens, Greece 313-318.Google Scholar
  5. Li R, Zeng B, Liou ML: A new three-step search algorithm for block motion estimation. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 1994,4(4):438-442. 10.1109/76.313138View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Po L-M, Ma W-C: A novel four-step search algorithm for fast block motion estimation. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 1996,6(3):313-317. 10.1109/76.499840View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Zhu S, Ma K-K: A new diamond search algorithm for fast block-matching motion estimation. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 2000,9(2):287-290. 10.1109/83.821744MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang S-Y, Tsai W-C: A simple and efficient block motion estimation algorithm based on full-search array architecture. Signal Processing: Image Communication 2004,19(10):975-992. 10.1016/j.image.2004.08.001Google Scholar
  9. Saponara S, Fanucci L: Data-adaptive motion estimation algorithm and VLSI architecture design for low-power video systems. IEE Proceedings Computers & Digital Techniques 2004,151(1):51-59. 10.1049/ip-cdt:20030858View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Tourapis AM, Au OC, Liou ML: Predictive motion vector field adaptive search technique (PMVFAST): enhancing block-based motion estimation. Proceedings of Visual Communications and Image Processing (VCIP '01), January 2001, San Jose, Calif, USA, Proceedings of SPIE 4310: 883-892.Google Scholar
  11. Tourapis AM: Enhanced predictive zonal search for single and multiple frame motion estimation. Proceedings of Viual Communications and Image Processing (VCIP '02), January 2002, San Jose, Calif, USA, Proceedings of SPIE 4671: 1069-1079.Google Scholar
  12. Ahmad I, Zheng W, Luo J, Liou M: A fast adaptive motion estimation algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2006,16(3):420-438. 10.1109/TCSVT.2006.870022View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Momcilovic S, Dias T, Roma N, Sousa L: Application specific instruction set processor for adaptive video motion estimation. Proceedings of the 9th Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design: Architectures, Methods and Tools (DSD '06), August-September 2006, Dubrovnik, Croatia 160-167.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Tuan J-C, Chang T-S, Jen C-W: On the data reuse and memory bandwidth analysis for full-search block-matching VLSI architecture. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2002,12(1):61-72. 10.1109/76.981846View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Dias T, Roma N, Sousa L: Low power distance measurement unit for real-time hardware motion estimators. Proceedings of International Workshop on Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation (PATMOS '06), September 2006, Montpellier, France 247-255.Google Scholar
  16. Sousa L, Roma N: Low-power array architectures for motion estimation. Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (MMSP '99), September 1999, Copenhagen, Denmark 679-684.Google Scholar
  17. Xilinx Inc : User Guide. v1.1.1. ML310 User Guide for Virtex-II Pro Embedded Development Platform, October 2004Google Scholar
  18. Virtual Silicon Technology Inc : eSi-Route/11 TM high performance standard cell library (UMC 0.18 μ m). Tech. Rep. v2.4. 2001.Google Scholar
  19. Berić A, Sethuraman R, Peters H, van Meerbergen J, de Haan G, Pinto CA: A 27 mW 1.1 mm 2 motion estimator for picture-rate up-converter. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on VLSI Design (VLSI '04), January 2004, Mumbai, India 17: 1083-1088.Google Scholar

Copyright

© T. Dias et al. 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.