- Research Article
- Open Access
Observations on Power-Efficiency Trends in Mobile Communication Devices
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems volume 2007, Article number: 056976 (2007)
Computing solutions used in mobile communications equipment are similar to those in personal and mainframe computers. The key differences between the implementations at chip level are the low leakage silicon technology and lower clock frequency used in mobile devices. The hardware and software architectures, including the operating system principles, are strikingly similar, although the mobile computing systems tend to rely more on hardware accelerators. As the performance expectations of mobile devices are increasing towards the personal computer level and beyond, power efficiency is becoming a major bottleneck. So far, the improvements of the silicon processes in mobile phones have been exploited by software designers to increase functionality and to cut development time, while usage times, and energy efficiency, have been kept at levels that satisfy the customers. Here we explain some of the observed developments and consider means of improving energy efficiency. We show that both processor and software architectures have a big impact on power consumption. Properly targeted research is needed to find the means to explicitly optimize system designs for energy efficiency, rather than maximize the nominal throughputs of the processor cores used.
GSM Association : TW.09 Battery Life Measurement Technique. 1998.http://www.gsmworld.com/documents/index.shtml
Nokia : Phone models. http://www.nokia.com/
Anis M, Allam M, Elmasry M: Impact of technology scaling on CMOS logic styles. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing 2002,49(8):577-588. 10.1109/TCSII.2002.805631
Frantz G: Digital signal processor trends. IEEE Micro 2000,20(6):52-59. 10.1109/40.888703
The ARM foundry program, 2004 and 2006, http://www.arm.com/
3GPP: TS 05.01 : Physical Layer on the Radio Path (General Description). http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/0501.htm
Doyle J, Broach B: Small gains in power efficiency now, bigger gains tomorrow. EE Times 2002.
Jyrkkä K, Silven O, Ali-Yrkkö O, Heidari R, Berg H: Component-based development of DSP software for mobile communication terminals. Microprocessors and Microsystems 2002,26(9-10):463-474. 10.1016/S0141-9331(02)00077-7
Neuvo Y: Cellular phones as embedded systems. Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC '04), February 2004, San Francisco, Calif, USA 1: 32-37.
Gao XQ, Duanmu CJ, Zou CR: A multilevel successive elimination algorithm for block matching motion estimation. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 2000,9(3):501-504. 10.1109/83.826786
Wang H-S, Mersereau RM: Fast algorithms for the estimation of motion vectors. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 1999,8(3):435-438. 10.1109/83.748899
5250 VGA encoder, 2004, http://www.hantro.com/en/products/codecs/hardware/5250.html
Moch S, Bereković M, Stolberg HJ, et al.: HIBRID-SOC: a multi-core architecture for image and video applications. ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News 2004,32(3):55-61. 10.1145/1024295.1024303
Loo KK, Alukaidey T, Jimaa SA: High performance parallelised 3GPP turbo decoder. Proceedings of the 5th European Personal Mobile Communications Conference (EPMCC '03), April 2003, Glasgow, UK, Conf. Publ. no. 492 337-342.
Salami R, Laflamme C, Bessette B, et al.: Description of GSM enhanced full rate speech codec. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '97), June 1997, Montreal, Canada 2: 725-729.
Klein MH: A Practitioner's Handbook for Real-Time Analysis. Kluwer, Boston, Mass, USA; 1993.
Spuri M, Buttazzo GC: Efficient aperiodic service under earliest deadline scheduling. Proceedings of Real-Time Systems Symposium, December 1994, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA 2-11.
Stärner J, Asplund L: Measuring the cache interference cost in preemptive real-time systems. Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES '04), June 2004, Washington, DC, USA 146-154.
Gathaus MR, Ringenberg JS, Ernst D, Austen TM, Mudge T, Brown RB: MiBench: a free, commercially representative embedded benchmark suite. Proceedings of the 4th Annual IEEE International Workshop on Workload Characterization (WWC-4 '01), December 2001, Austin, Tex, USA 3-14.
Mogul JC, Borg A: The effect of context switches on cache performance. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS '91), April 1991, Santa Clara, Calif, USA 75-84.
Sebek F: Instruction cache memory issues in real-time systems, Technology Licentiate thesis.
Sriram S, Bhattacharyya SS: Embedded Multiprocessors: Scheduling and Synchronization. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA; 2000.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Silven, O., Jyrkkä, K. Observations on Power-Efficiency Trends in Mobile Communication Devices. J Embedded Systems 2007, 056976 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/56976
- Energy Efficiency
- Mobile Device
- Mobile Communication
- Software Architecture
- Processor Core