Skip to content


  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Formal Methods for Scheduling of Latency-Insensitive Designs

EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems20072007:039161

  • Received: 1 July 2006
  • Accepted: 11 May 2007
  • Published:


Latency-insensitive design (LID) theory was invented to deal with SoC timing closure issues, by allowing arbitrary fixed integer latencies on long global wires. Latencies are coped with using a resynchronization protocol that performs dynamic scheduling of data transportation. Functional behavior is preserved. This dynamic scheduling is implemented using specific synchronous hardware elements: relay-stations (RS) and shell-wrappers (SW). Our first goal is to provide a formal modeling of RS and SW, that can be then formally verified. As turns out, resulting behavior is k-periodic, thus amenable to static scheduling. Our second goal is to provide formal hardware modeling here also. It initially performs throughput equalization, adding integer latencies wherever possible; residual cases require introduction of fractional registers (FRs) at specific locations. Benchmark results are presented, run on our Kpassa tool implementation.


  • Formal Method
  • Electronic Circuit
  • Timing Closure
  • Dynamic Schedule
  • Functional Behavior

[1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20]

Authors’ Affiliations

Aoste project-team, INRIA Sophia-Antipolis, 2004 rouye des Iucioles, BP 93, Sophia Antipolis, Cedex 06902, France


  1. Carloni LP, McMillan KL, Sangiovanni-Vincentelli AL: Theory of latency-insensitive design. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems 2001,20(9):1059-1076. 10.1109/43.945302View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Carloni LP, McMillan KL, Saldanha A, Sangiovanni-Vincentelli AL: A methodology for correct-by-construction latency insensitive design. Proceedings of the IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD '99), November 1999, San Jose, Calif, USA 309-315.Google Scholar
  3. Carloni LP, Sangiovanni-Vincentelli AL: Performance analysis and optimization of latency insensitive systems. Proceedings of the 37th Conference on Design automation (DAC '00), June 2000, Los Angeles, Calif, USA 361-367.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Chelcea T, Nowick SM: Robust interfaces for mixed-timing systems with application to latency-insensitive protocols. Proceedings of the 38th conference on Design automation (DAC '01), June 2001, Las Vegas, Nev, USA 21-26.Google Scholar
  5. Chakraborty A, Greenstreet MR: A minimalist source-synchronous interface. Proceedings of the 15th Annual IEEE International ASIC/SOC Conference, September 2002, Rochester, NY, USA 443-447.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Commoner F, Holt AW, Even S, Pnueli A: Marked directed graphs. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 1971,5(5):511-523. 10.1016/S0022-0000(71)80013-2MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Ramchandani C: Analysis of asynchronous concurrent systems by timed Petri nets, Ph.D. thesis. MIT, Cambridge, Mass, USA; 1973.Google Scholar
  8. Carlier J, Chrétienne P: Problème d'ordonnancement: modélisation, complexité, algorithmes. Masson, Paris, France; 1988.Google Scholar
  9. Baccelli F, Cohen G, Olsder GJ, Quadrat J-P: Synchronization and Linearity: An Algebra for Discrete Event Systems. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 1992.MATHGoogle Scholar
  10. van Dongen V, Gao GR, Ning Q: A polynomial time method for optimal software pipelining. In Proceedings of the 2nd Joint International Conference on Vector and Parallel Processing (CONPAR '92), September 1992, Lyon, France. Springer; 613-624.Google Scholar
  11. Boyer F-R, Aboulhamid EM, Savaria Y, Boyer M: Optimal design of synchronous circuits using software pipelining techniques. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD '98), October 1998, Austin, Tex, USA 62-67.Google Scholar
  12. Casu MR, Macchiarulo L: A new approach to latency insensitive design. In Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference on Design Automation (DAC '04), June 2004, San Diego, Calif, USA. ACM Press; 576-581.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohen A, Duranton M, Eisenbeis C, Pagetti C, Plateau F, Pouzet M: N -synchronous Kahn networks: a relaxed model of synchrony for real-time systems. In Proceedings of the 33rd ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL '06), January 2006, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. ACM Press; 180-193.Google Scholar
  14. Boucaron J, Millo J-V, de Simone R: Another glance at relay stations in latency-insensitive design. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 2006,146(2):41-59. 10.1016/j.entcs.2005.05.035View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Casu MR, Macchiarulo L: A detailed implementation of latency insensitive protocols. Proceedings of Formal Methods for Globally Asyncronous Locally Syncronous Architectures, September 2003, Pisa, Italy 94-103.Google Scholar
  16. Benveniste A, Caspi P, Edwards SA, Halbwachs N, Le Guernic P, de Simone R: The synchronous languages 12 years later. Proceedings of the IEEE 2003,91(1):64-83. 10.1109/JPROC.2002.805826View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Yakovlev AV, Koelmans AM, Lavagno L: High-level modeling and design of asynchronous interface logic. IEEE Design and Test of Computers 1995,12(1):32-40. 10.1109/54.350688View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Casu MR, Macchiarulo L: Floorplanning for throughput. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Physical Design (ISPD '04), April 2004, Phoenix, Ariz, USA. ACM Press; 62-69.Google Scholar
  19. André C: Representation and analysis of reactive behaviors: a synchronous approach. Proceedings of the IMAC Multiconference on Computational Engineering in Systems Applications (CESA '96), July 1996, Lille, France 19-29.Google Scholar
  20. Dasdan A: Experimental analysis of the fastest optimum cycle ratio and mean algorithms. ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems 2004,9(4):385-418. 10.1145/1027084.1027085View ArticleGoogle Scholar


© Julien Boucaron et al. 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.