- Research Article
- Open Access
Low-Complexity Multiple Description Coding of Video Based on 3D Block Transforms
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems volume 2007, Article number: 038631 (2007)
The paper presents a multiple description (MD) video coder based on three-dimensional (3D) transforms. Two balanced descriptions are created from a video sequence. In the encoder, video sequence is represented in a form of coarse sequence approximation (shaper) included in both descriptions and residual sequence (details) which is split between two descriptions. The shaper is obtained by block-wise pruned 3D-DCT. The residual sequence is coded by 3D-DCT or hybrid, LOT+DCT, 3D-transform. The coding scheme is targeted to mobile devices. It has low computational complexity and improved robustness of transmission over unreliable networks. The coder is able to work at very low redundancies. The coding scheme is simple, yet it outperforms some MD coders based on motion-compensated prediction, especially in the low-redundancy region. The margin is up to 3 dB for reconstruction from one description.
Chan RK, Lee MC: 3D-DCT quantization as a compression technique for video sequences. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia (VSMM '97), September 1997, Geneva, Switzerland 188-196.
Saponara S, Fanucci L, Terreni P: Low-power VLSI architectures for 3D discrete cosine transform (DCT). Proceedings of the 46th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS '03), December 2003, Cairo, Egypt 3: 1567-1570.
Burg A, Keller R, Wassner J, Felber N, Fichtner W: A 3D-DCT real-time video compression system for low complexity single-chip VLSI implementation. Proceedings of the Mobile Multimedia Conference (MoMuC '00), November 2000, Tokyo, Japan 1B-5-1.
Bakr M, Salama AE: Implementation of 3D-DCT based video encoder/decoder system. Proceedings of the 45th IEEE Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS '02), August 2002, Tulsa, Okla, USA 2: 13-16.
Boussakta S, Alshibami HO: Fast algorithm for the 3-D DCT-II. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 2004,52(4):992-1001. 10.1109/TSP.2004.823472
ITU-T Video coding for low bitrate communication. ITU-T Recommendation, Draft on H.263v2, 1999
Koivusaari JJ, Takala JH: Simplified three-dimensional discrete cosine transform based video codec. Multimedia on Mobile Devices, January 2005, San Jose, Calif, USA, Proceedings of SPIE 5684: 11-21.
Goyal VK: Multiple description coding: compression meets the network. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 2001,18(5):74-93. 10.1109/79.952806
Apostolopoulos JG, Wee SJ: Unbalanced multiple description video communication using path diversity. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '01), October 2001, Thessaloniki, Greece 1: 966-969.
Reibman AR, Jafarkhani H, Wang Y, Orchard MT, Puri R: Multiple description coding for video using motion compensated prediction. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '99), October 1999, Kobe, Japan 3: 837-841.
Apostolopoulos JG: Error-resilient video compression through the use of multiple states. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '00), September 2000, Vancouver, BC, Canada 3: 352-355.
Vaishampayan V, John SA: Balanced interframe multiple description video compression. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP '99), October 1999, Kobe, Japan 3: 812-816.
Wang Y, Reibman AR, Lin S: Multiple description coding for video delivery. Proceedings of the IEEE 2005,93(1):57-70. 10.1109/JPROC.2004.839618
Man H, de Queiroz RL, Smith MJT: Three-dimensional subband coding techniques for wireless video communications. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2002,12(6):386-397. 10.1109/TCSVT.2002.800316
Kim J, Mersereau RM, Altunbasak Y: Error-resilient image and video transmission over the Internet using unequal error protection. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 2003,12(2):121-131. 10.1109/TIP.2003.809006
Somasundaram S, Subbalakshmi KP: 3-D multiple description video coding for packet switched networks. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME '03), July 2003, Baltimore, Md, USA 1: 589-592.
Yu M, Wenqin Z, Jiang G, Yin Z: An approach to 3D scalable multiple description video coding with content delivery networks. Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on VLSI Design and Video Technology (IWVDVT '05), May 2005, Suzhou, China 191-194.
Norkin A, Gotchev A, Egiazarian K, Astola J: A low-complexity multiple description video coder based on 3D-transforms. Proceedings of the 14th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO '06), September 2006, Florence, Italy
Norkin A, Gotchev A, Egiazarian K, Astola J: Two-stage multiple description image coders: analysis and comparative study. Signal Processing: Image Communication 2006,21(8):609-625. 10.1016/j.image.2006.04.001
Bruckstein AM, Elad M, Kimmel R: Down-scaling for better transform compression. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 2003,12(9):1132-1144. 10.1109/TIP.2003.816023
Yeo B-L, Liu B: Volume rendering of DCT-based compressed 3D scalar data. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 1995,1(1):29-43. 10.1109/2945.468390
Božinović N, Konrad J: Motion analysis in 3D DCT domain and its application to video coding. Signal Processing: Image Communication 2005,20(6):510-528.
Malvar HS, Staelin DH: The LOT: transform coding without blocking effects. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 1989,37(4):553-559. 10.1109/29.17536
Equitz WHR, Cover TM: Successive refinement of information. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1991,37(2):269-275. 10.1109/18.75242
Skodras AN: Fast discrete cosine transform pruning. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 1994,42(7):1833-1837. 10.1109/78.298293
Rao K, Yip R: Discrete Cosine Transform: Algorithms, Advantages, Applications. Academic Press, London, UK; 1990.
Yu K, Lv J, Li J, Li S: Practical real-time video codec for mobile devices. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME '03), July 2003, Baltimore, Md, USA 3: 509-512.
Cote G, Erol B, Gallant M, Kossentini F: H.263+: video coding at low bitrates. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 1998,8(7):849-866. 10.1109/76.735381
Roberts L: TMN 8 (h.263+) encoder/decoder, version 3.0. 1997.
Kim SD, Yi J, Kim HM, Ra JB: A deblocking filter with two separate modes in block-based video coding. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 1999,9(1):156-160. 10.1109/76.744282
Rusanovskyy D, Egiazarian K: Post-processing for three-dimensional discrete cosine transform based video coding. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (ACIVS '05), September 2005, Antwerp, Belgium 618-625.
Vaishampayan V: Design of multiple description scalar quantizers. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1993,39(3):821-834. 10.1109/18.256491
Reibman AR, Jafarkhani H, Wang Y, Orchard MT, Puri R: Multiple-description video coding using motion-compensated temporal prediction. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 2002,12(3):193-204. 10.1109/76.993440
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Norkin, A., Gotchev, A., Egiazarian, K. et al. Low-Complexity Multiple Description Coding of Video Based on 3D Block Transforms. J Embedded Systems 2007, 038631 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/38631
- Computational Complexity
- Mobile Device
- Video Sequence
- Control Structure
- Video Coder