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Table 1 Energy-harvesting sources

From: Implantable RF telemetry for cardiac monitoring in the murine heart: a tutorial review

Energy source Performance Note
Ambient RF <1 μ W/cm2 A few mW with a short distance inductive coupled systems [21]
Ambient light 100 mW/cm2 (direct sunlight) Assuming common polycrystalline solar cells at 16–17%
  100 μ W/cm2 (office light) efficiency, while standard monocrystalline cells approach 20% at Δ T=5°C; typical thermoelectric generators ≤1% efficient for Δ T<40°C
Thermoelectric 60 μ W/cm2 at Δ T=5°C; typical thermoelectric generators ≤1% efficient for Δ T<40°C.
Vibrational 4 μ W/cm3 (human) Predictions for 1 cm3 generators
  800 μ W/cm3 (machine)  
Ambient airflow 1 mW/cm2 Demonstrated in microelectromechanical turbine at 30 liters/min
Push buttons 50 μ J/N MIT Media Lab Device
Hand generator 30 W/kg Nissho Engineering’s Tug Power
Heel strike 10−800 μ W 7 W potentially available (1 cm deflection at 70 kg per 1 Hz walk)